The edge-incused inscriptions found on the eight 2008 Presidential $1 Coins (James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Andrew Jackson
and Martin Van Buren) include the year of minting
or issuance (2008),
E PLURIBUS UNUM,
IN GOD WE TRUST and the mint mark (P, D or S).
Beginning in 2009 with the William Henry Harrison Presidential $1 Coin, the inscription IN GOD WE TRUST was moved to the
coin's obverse (heads side), with the year of minting or issuance,
E PLURIBUS UNUM and the mint mark remaining as edge lettering.
On October 28, 1886, President Grover Cleveland accepted the Statue of Liberty on behalf of the United States and said, in part, "We will not forget that Liberty has here made her home; nor shall her chosen altar be neglected."
She is the work of sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, who enlisted the assistance of engineer Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, designer of the Eiffel Tower, to help him solve some of the structural challenges presented by creating a statue of such magnitude.
The Statue of Liberty was completed in 1884 and shipped to the United States in June 1885, having been disassembled into 350 individual pieces that were packed in over 200 crates for the transatlantic voyage. In four months' time, she was re-assembled in New York Harbor, standing just over 151 feet from the top of the statue's base to the tip of the torch her right hand holds high above the waters of New York Harbor.
Originally intended as a gift to celebrate the American Centennial in 1876, the Statue of Liberty was given to the United States as a symbol of the friendship forged between the new American government and the government of France during the American Revolutionary War.
The tablet she holds in her left hand carries the inscription "July IV MDCCLXXVI" in reference to the July 4, 1776, signing of the Declaration of Independence and the birth of the Nation.
For millions of Americans, the Statue of Liberty was the first sight that their ancestors saw as they arrived in America after having left their homes in search of a better life for themselves and for their families.
Virginia native James Monroe was exceptionally qualified to serve as the United States' fifth president. Not only was he a Revolutionary War soldier, he was champion of the Bill of Rights, U.S. diplomat in Europe, governor of Virginia, senator, secretary of state, secretary of war, and negotiator of the Louisiana Purchase, before being overwhelmingly elected president in 1816.
|Reverse Designer||Joseph Menna|
His time in office is known as the "Era of Good Feelings" for the peace and booming economy the country enjoyed.
The Monroe Doctrine, a foundation of American foreign policy introduced in an 1823 message to Congress, warned European powers against expansionism in the Western Hemisphere.
Monroe's presidency was also marked by the Missouri Compromise, which preserved a balance of free states and slave states in the United States and prohibited slavery in western territories above the 36/30' north latitude line.
John Quincy Adams was born into politics as the son of second U.S. President John Adams and Abigail Adams. As a child, he watched the American Revolution unfold and accompanied his father on his diplomatic posts to Europe. He followed in his father's footsteps by becoming a diplomat in Europe and, later, the sixth U.S. president.
|John Q. Adams|
|Reverse Designer||Don Everhart|
Adams became president by the slimmest of margins in a controversial election that was ultimately decided in the US House of Representatives by one vote.
As president, Adams proposed a wide system of roads and canals to stimulate the economy and foster trade throughout the Nation. During his administration, the Cumberland road was extended into Ohio, and several major canal systems were begun.
After his unsuccessful bid for re-election, Adams went on to serve nine terms in the US House of Representatives. He and Andrew Johnson, 17th president, are the only two former presidents to later serve in Congress.
A citizen of Tennessee, Andrew Jackson was the first president elected from west of the Appalachian Mountains. As a boy, he fought in the Revolutionary War. Jackson gained national prominence as a hero of the War of 1812, and was nicknamed "Old Hickory" for his firm discipline as commander of his troops.
|Reverse Designer||Joel Iskowitz|
As president, Jackson worked to strengthen the executive branch and vetoed more bills than the six prior presidents combined. His renomination to a second term marked the first use of a national nominating convention to select a party's candidate instead of a congressional caucus.
A strong proponent of federal supremacy over states' rights, he took a forceful stance against the state of South Carolina's attempt to nullify a federal tariff, declaring "Our federal Union: it must be preserved."
President Jackson authorized three southern branches of the United States Mint in 1835 - New Orleans, Charlotte, and Dahlonega.
Martin Van Buren, the first president from New York and not of British descent, was also the first president to be born an American citizen. Raised in a Dutch neighborhood in Kinderhook, New York, his interest in politics took root at his father's tavern where prominent politicians, including Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr, would stop by on their travels.
|Martian Van Buren|
|Reverse Designer||Joel Iskowitz|
He served in the United States Senate and was governor of New York before becoming Andrew Jackson's secretary of state. He served as vice president during Jackson's second term and handily won the 1837 presidential election.
As president, Van Buren initiated an independent federal treasury system to take the place of state banks' handling of federal monies and peacefully settled disputes with Great Britain that were threatening to take the country to war. However, a deep economic depression persisted throughout his term in office and he lost his bid for re-election in 1841.