The edge-incused inscriptions found on the four 2009 Presidential $1 Coins Chester Arthur, Grover Cleveland,
Benjamin Harrison and the second Grover Cleveland include the year of minting
or issuance (2012),
E PLURIBUS UNUM,
IN GOD WE TRUST and the mint mark (P, D or S).
Beginning in 2009 with the William Henry Harrison Presidential $1 Coin, the inscription
IN GOD WE TRUST was moved to the
coin's obverse (heads side), with the year of minting or issuance, E PLURIBUS UNUM and the mint mark remaining as edge lettering.
On October 28, 1886, President Grover Cleveland accepted the Statue of Liberty on behalf of the United States and said, in part, "We will not forget that Liberty has here made her home; nor shall her chosen altar be neglected."
She is the work of sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, who enlisted the assistance of engineer Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, designer of the Eiffel Tower, to help him solve some of the structural challenges presented by creating a statue of such magnitude.
The Statue of Liberty was completed in 1884 and shipped to the United States in June 1885, having been disassembled into 350 individual pieces that were packed in over 200 crates for the transatlantic voyage. In four months' time, she was re-assembled in New York Harbor, standing just over 151 feet from the top of the statue's base to the tip of the torch her right hand holds high above the waters of New York Harbor.
Originally intended as a gift to celebrate the American Centennial in 1876, the Statue of Liberty was given to the United States as a symbol of the friendship forged between the new American government and the government of France during the American Revolutionary War.
The tablet she holds in her left hand carries the inscription "July IV MDCCLXXVI" in reference to the July 4, 1776, signing of the Declaration of Independence and the birth of the Nation.
For millions of Americans, the Statue of Liberty was the first sight that their ancestors saw as they arrived in America after having left their homes in search of a better life for themselves and for their families.
William McKinley (January 29, 1843 - September 14, 1901) was the 25th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1897, until his assassination in September 1901, six months into his second term. McKinley led the nation to victory in the Spanish-American War, raised protective tariffs to promote American industry, and maintained the nation on the gold standard in a rejection of inflationary proposals.
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|Reverse Designer||Phebe Hemphill|
McKinley was the last president to have served in the American Civil War, beginning as a private in the Union Army and ending as a brevet major. After the war, he settled in Canton, Ohio, where he practiced law and married Ida Saxton. In 1876, he was elected to Congress, where he became the Republican Party's expert on the protective tariff, which he promised would bring prosperity. His 1890 McKinley Tariff was highly controversial; which together with a Democratic redistricting aimed at gerrymandering him out of office, led to his defeat in the Democratic landslide of 1890. He was elected Ohio's governor in 1891 and 1893, steering a moderate course between capital and labor interests. With the aid of his close adviser Mark Hanna, he secured the Republican nomination for president in 1896, amid a deep economic depression. He defeated his Democratic rival, William Jennings Bryan, after a front-porch campaign in which he advocated "sound money" (the gold standard unless altered by international agreement) and promised that high tariffs would restore prosperity.
Rapid economic growth marked McKinley's presidency. He promoted the 1897 Dingley Tariff to protect manufacturers and factory workers from foreign competition, and in 1900, he secured the passage of the Gold Standard Act. McKinley hoped to persuade Spain to grant independence to rebellious Cuba without conflict, but when negotiation failed, he led the nation in the Spanish-American War of 1898; the U.S. victory was quick and decisive. As part of the peace settlement, Spain turned over to the United States its main overseas colonies of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines; Cuba was promised independence, but at that time remained under the control of the U.S. Army. The United States annexed the independent Republic of Hawaii in 1898 and it became a U.S. territory. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 - January 6, 1919) was an American statesman, author, explorer, soldier, naturalist, and reformer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909. As a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a driving force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century.
Born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, Roosevelt successfully overcame his health problems by embracing a strenuous
lifestyle. He integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, and world-famous achievements into a
persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he became a lifelong naturalist before attending Harvard College. His
first of many books, The Naval War of 1812 (1882), established his reputation as both a learned historian and as a popular
writer. Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the reform faction of Republicans in New York's state legislature.
Following the deaths of his wife and mother, he took time to grieve by escaping to the wilderness of the American West and
operating a cattle ranch in the Dakotas for a time, before returning East to run unsuccessfully for Mayor of New York City in 1886.
He served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under William McKinley, resigning after one year to serve with the Rough Riders,
where he gained national fame for courage during the Spanish-American War. Returning a war hero, he was elected governor of
New York in 1898. The state party leadership distrusted him, so they took the lead in moving him to the prestigious but powerless
role of vice president as McKinley's running mate in the election of 1900. Roosevelt campaigned vigorously across the country,
helping McKinley's re-election in a landslide victory based on a platform of peace, prosperity, and conservatism.
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|Reverse Designer||Joeseph Menna|
Following the assassination of President McKinley in September 1901, Roosevelt, at age 42, succeeded to the office, becoming the
youngest United States President in history. Leading his party and country into the Progressive Era, he championed his
Square Deal domestic policies, promising the average citizen fairness, breaking of trusts, regulation of railroads, and
pure food and drugs. Making conservation a top priority, he established a myriad of new national parks, forests, and monuments
intended to preserve the nation's natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, where he began construction
of the Panama Canal. He greatly expanded the United States Navy, and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the
United States' naval power around the globe. His successful efforts to end the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel
Elected in 1904 to a full term, Roosevelt continued to promote progressive policies, but many of his efforts and much of his
legislative agenda were eventually blocked in Congress. Roosevelt successfully groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft,
to succeed him in the presidency. After leaving office, Roosevelt went on safari in Africa and toured Europe. Returning to the
USA, he became frustrated with Taft's approach as his successor. He tried but failed to win the presidential nomination in 1912.
Roosevelt founded his own party, the Progressive, so-called
Bull Moose Party, and called for wide-ranging progressive
reforms. The split among Republicans enabled the Democrats to win both the White House and a majority in the Congress in 1912.
The Democrats in the South had also gained power by having disenfranchised most blacks (and Republicans) from the political system
from 1890 to 1908, fatally weakening the Republican Party across the region, and creating a Solid South dominated by their party
alone. Republicans aligned with Taft nationally would control the Republican Party for decades.
Frustrated at home, Roosevelt led a two-year expedition in the Amazon Basin, nearly dying of tropical disease. During World War I, he opposed President Woodrow Wilson for keeping the U.S. out of the war against Germany, and offered his military services, which were never summoned. Although planning to run again for president in 1920, Roosevelt suffered deteriorating health and died in early 1919. Roosevelt has consistently been ranked by scholars as one of the greatest U.S. presidents. His face was carved into Mount Rushmore alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Abraham Lincoln. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 - March 8, 1930) served as the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913) and as the 10th Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court (1921-1930), the only person to have held both offices. Taft was elected president in 1908, the chosen successor of Theodore Roosevelt, but was defeated for re-election by Woodrow Wilson in 1912 after Roosevelt split the Republican vote by running as a third-party candidate. In 1921, President Warren G. Harding appointed Taft chief justice, a position in which he served until a few weeks before his death.
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|William Howard Taft|
|Reverse Designer||Barbara Fox|
Taft was born in Cincinnati in 1857. His father Alphonso Taft was a U.S. Attorney General and Secretary of War. William Taft attended Yale and was a member of Skull and Bones secret society like his father, and after becoming a lawyer was appointed a judge while still in his twenties. He continued a rapid rise, being named Solicitor General and as a judge of the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals. President William McKinley appointed Taft civilian governor of the Philippines. In 1904, Roosevelt made him Secretary of War and he became Roosevelt's hand-picked successor. Taft declined repeated offers of appointment to the Supreme Court, believing his political work more important.
With Roosevelt's help, Taft had little opposition for the Republican nomination for president in 1908, and easily defeated William Jennings Bryan for the presidency that November. In the White House, he focused on the Far East more than European affairs, and repeatedly intervened to prop up or remove Latin American governments. Taft sought reductions to the tariff, then a major source of governmental income, but the resulting bill was heavily influenced by special interests. His administration was filled with conflict between the conservative wing of the Republican Party, with which Taft often sympathized, and the progressive wing, toward which Roosevelt moved more and more. Controversies over conservation and over antitrust cases filed by the Taft administration served to further separate the two men. Roosevelt challenged Taft for renomination in 1912. Taft used his control of the party machinery to gain a bare majority of delegates, and Roosevelt bolted the party. The split left Taft with little chance of re-election, and in Wilson's victory won only Utah and Vermont.
After leaving office, Taft returned to Yale as a professor, continuing his political activity and working against war through the League to Enforce Peace. In 1921, President Harding appointed Taft chief justice, an office he had long sought. Chief Justice Taft was a conservative on business issues, but under him, there were advances in individual rights. In poor health, he resigned in February 1930. After his death the next month, he was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, the first president and first Supreme Court justice to be interred there. Taft is generally listed near the middle in historians' rankings of U.S. presidents. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 - February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921. Born in Staunton, Virginia, he spent his early years in Augusta, Georgia and Columbia, South Carolina. Wilson earned a PhD in political science at Johns Hopkins University, and served as a professor and scholar at various institutions before being chosen as President of Princeton University, a position he held from 1902 to 1910. In the election of 1910, he was the gubernatorial candidate of New Jersey's Democratic Party, and was elected the 34th Governor of New Jersey, serving from 1911 to 1913. Running for president in 1912, Wilson benefited from a split in the Republican Party, which enabled his plurality of just over forty percent to win him a large electoral college margin. He was the first Southerner elected as president since 1848, and Wilson was a leading force in the Progressive Movement, bolstered by his Democratic Party's winning control of both the White House and Congress in 1912.
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|Reverse Designer||Don Everhart|
In office, Wilson reintroduced the spoken State of the Union, which had been out of use since 1801. Leading the Congress, now in Democratic hands, he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933. Included among these were the Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, and the Federal Farm Loan Act. Having taken office one month after ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment, Wilson called a special session of Congress, whose work culminated in the Revenue Act of 1913, reintroducing an income tax and lowering tariffs. Through passage of the Adamson Act, imposing an 8-hour workday for railroads, he averted a railroad strike and an ensuing economic crisis. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Wilson maintained a policy of neutrality, while pursuing a more aggressive policy in dealing with Mexico's civil war.
Wilson faced former New York Governor Charles Evans Hughes in the presidential election of 1916. By a narrow margin, he became the
first Democrat since Andrew Jackson elected to two consecutive terms. Wilson's second term was dominated by American entry into
World War I. In April 1917, when Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare, Wilson asked Congress to declare war in order
the world safe for democracy. The United States conducted military operations alongside the Allies, although without
a formal alliance. Also in 1917, he denied sanctuary to Tsarist Russia's Nicholas II and his immediate family when Nicholas was
overthrown in that year's February Revolution and forced into abdication that March, a decision that became controversial the
following year with the shooting of the Romanov family in 1918. During the war, Wilson focused on diplomacy and financial
considerations, leaving military strategy to the generals, especially General John J. Pershing. Loaning billions of dollars to
Britain, France, and other Allies, the United States aided their finance of the war effort. Through the Selective Service Act,
conscription sent 10,000 freshly trained soldiers to France, per day, by summer of 1918. On the home front, he raised income
taxes, borrowing billions of dollars through the public's purchase of Liberty Bonds. He set up the War Industries Board, promoted
labor union cooperation, regulating agriculture and food production through the Lever Act, and granting to the Secretary of the
Treasury, William McAdoo, direct control of the nation's railroad system.
In his 1915 State of the Union, Wilson asked Congress for what became the Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918, suppressing anti-draft activists. The crackdown was intensified by his Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer to include expulsion of non-citizen radicals during the First Red Scare of 1919-1920. Following years of advocacy for suffrage on the state level, in 1918 he endorsed the Nineteenth Amendment whose ratification provided all women the right to vote by its ratification in 1920, over Southern opposition. Wilson staffed his government with Southern Democrats who believed in segregation. He gave department heads greater autonomy in their management. Early in 1918, he issued his principles for peace, the Fourteen Points, and in 1919, following armistice, he traveled to Paris, promoting the formation of a League of Nations, concluding the Treaty of Versailles. Following his return from Europe, Wilson embarked on a nationwide tour in 1919 to campaign for the treaty, suffering a severe stroke. The treaty was met with serious concern by Senate Republicans, and Wilson rejected a compromise effort led by Henry Cabot Lodge, leading to the Senate's rejection of the treaty. Due to his stroke, Wilson secluded himself in the White House, disability having diminished his power and influence. Forming a strategy for reelection, Wilson deadlocked the 1920 Democratic National Convention, but his bid for a third-term nomination was overlooked. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)