The edge-incused inscriptions found on the four 2009 Presidential $1 Coins Chester Arthur, Grover Cleveland,
Benjamin Harrison and the second Grover Cleveland include the year of minting
or issuance (2012),
E PLURIBUS UNUM,
IN GOD WE TRUST and the mint mark (P, D or S).
Beginning in 2009 with the William Henry Harrison Presidential $1 Coin, the inscription
IN GOD WE TRUST was moved to the
coin's obverse (heads side), with the year of minting or issuance, E PLURIBUS UNUM and the mint mark remaining as edge lettering.
On October 28, 1886, President Grover Cleveland accepted the Statue of Liberty on behalf of the United States and said, in part, "We will not forget that Liberty has here made her home; nor shall her chosen altar be neglected."
She is the work of sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, who enlisted the assistance of engineer Alexandre Gustave Eiffel, designer of the Eiffel Tower, to help him solve some of the structural challenges presented by creating a statue of such magnitude.
The Statue of Liberty was completed in 1884 and shipped to the United States in June 1885, having been disassembled into 350 individual pieces that were packed in over 200 crates for the transatlantic voyage. In four months' time, she was re-assembled in New York Harbor, standing just over 151 feet from the top of the statue's base to the tip of the torch her right hand holds high above the waters of New York Harbor.
Originally intended as a gift to celebrate the American Centennial in 1876, the Statue of Liberty was given to the United States as a symbol of the friendship forged between the new American government and the government of France during the American Revolutionary War.
The tablet she holds in her left hand carries the inscription "July IV MDCCLXXVI" in reference to the July 4, 1776, signing of the Declaration of Independence and the birth of the Nation.
For millions of Americans, the Statue of Liberty was the first sight that their ancestors saw as they arrived in America after having left their homes in search of a better life for themselves and for their families.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 - December 26, 1972) was the 33rd President of the United States (1945-53), an American politician of the Democratic Party. He served as a United States Senator from Missouri (1935-45) and briefly as Vice President (1945) before he succeeded to the presidency on April 12, 1945 upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. He was president during the final months of World War II, making the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Truman was elected in his own right in 1948. He presided over an uncertain domestic scene as America sought its path after the war and tensions with the Soviet Union increased, marking the start of the Cold War.
|Year Mint||Circulation Strikes|
|Harry S. Truman|
|Reverse Designer||Don Everhart|
Truman was born in Lamar, Missouri and spent most of his youth on his family's farm near Independence. In the last months of World War I, he served in combat in France as an artillery officer with his National Guard unit. After the war, he briefly owned a haberdashery in Kansas City, Missouri, and joined the Democratic Party and the political machine of Tom Pendergast. Truman was first elected to public office as a county official in 1922, and then as a U.S. Senator in 1934. He gained national prominence as chairman of the Truman Committee, formed in March 1941, which exposed waste, fraud, and corruption in Federal Government wartime contracts.
Truman's presidency was a turning point in foreign affairs, as the United States engaged in an internationalist foreign policy and renounced isolationism. Truman helped found the United Nations in 1945, issued the Truman Doctrine in 1947 to contain Communism, and got the $13 billion Marshall Plan enacted to rebuild Western Europe. The Soviet Union, a wartime ally, became a peacetime enemy in the Cold War. Truman oversaw the Berlin Airlift of 1948 and the creation of NATO in 1949. He was unable to stop Communists from taking over China. When communist North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, he sent in U.S. troops and gained UN approval for the Korean War.
Truman maintained that civil rights were a moral priority, and in 1948 submitted the first comprehensive civil rights legislation and issued Executive Orders to start racial integration in the military and federal agencies. Allegations were raised of corruption in the Truman administration, linked to certain cabinet members and senior White House staff, and this became a central campaign issue in the 1952 presidential election and may have contributed to Adlai Stevenson's (Truman's successor as Democratic nominee) loss to Republican nominee Dwight D. Eisenhower. Popular and scholarly assessments of Truman's presidency initially were unfavorable but became more positive over time following his retirement from politics. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 - March 28, 1969) was an American politician and general who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He was a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe. He was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942-43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944-45 from the Western Front. In 1951, he became the first Supreme Commander of NATO.
|Year Mint||Circulation Strikes|
|Dwight D. Eisenhower|
|Reverse Designer||Joseph Menna|
Eisenhower was of Pennsylvania Dutch and a lesser amount of Irish ancestry, and was raised in a large family in Kansas by parents with a strong religious background. He graduated from West Point in 1915 and later married Mamie Doud and had two sons. After World War II, Eisenhower served as Army Chief of Staff under President Harry S. Truman and then accepted the post of President at Columbia University.
Eisenhower's main goals in office were to keep pressure on the Soviet Union and reduce federal deficits. In the first year of his presidency, he threatened the use of nuclear weapons in an effort to conclude the Korean War; his New Look policy of nuclear deterrence prioritized inexpensive nuclear weapons while reducing funding for conventional military forces. He ordered coups in Iran and Guatemala. Eisenhower gave major aid to help France in Vietnam. He gave strong financial support to the new nation of South Vietnam. Congress agreed to his request in 1955 for the Formosa Resolution, which obliged the U.S. to militarily support the pro-Western Republic of China in Taiwan and continue the isolation of the People's Republic of China.
On the domestic front, he covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy and contributed to the end of
McCarthyism by openly invoking the modern
expanded version of executive privilege. He otherwise left most political activity to his Vice President, Richard Nixon.
Eisenhower was a moderate conservative who continued New Deal agencies and expanded Social Security. He also launched the
Interstate Highway System, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the establishment of strong science education
via the National Defense Education Act, and encouraged peaceful use of nuclear power via amendments to the Atomic Energy Act.
Eisenhower's two terms saw considerable economic prosperity except for a sharp recession in 1958-59. Voted Gallup's most admired man twelve times, he achieved widespread popular esteem both in and out of office. Since the late 20th century, consensus among Western scholars has consistently held Eisenhower as one of the greatest U.S. Presidents. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
Jack Kennedy (May 29, 1917 - November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American
politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November
1963. The Cuban Missile Crisis, The Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, the establishment of the Peace Corps,
developments in the Space Race, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Trade Expansion Act to lower tariffs, and the Civil Rights
Movement all took place during Kennedy's presidency. His
New Frontier domestic program was largely enacted as a memorial
to him after his death. Kennedy increased the American presence in South Vietnam by a factor of 18 over Eisenhower, as to the
number of military advisors and tolerated the assassination of the president there.
|Year Mint||Circulation Strikes|
|John F. Kennedy|
|Reverse Designer||Don Everhart|
Kennedy's time in office was marked by high tensions with Communist states, particularly Cuba. An attempt in April 1961 at the
Bay of Pigs to overthrow the country's dictator, Fidel Castro, was thwarted by armed forces within three days. His administration
subsequently rejected plans by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to orchestrate false-flag attacks on American soil in order to gain
public approval for a war against Cuba. In October 1962, it was discovered Soviet ballistic missiles had been deployed in Cuba;
the resulting period of unease, often termed
the Cuban Missile Crisis, is seen by many historians as the closest the
human race has ever come to war featuring the use of nuclear weapons on both or multiple sides.
At age 43, he was the youngest man to have been elected to the office, the second-youngest president (after Theodore Roosevelt). Kennedy was the first person born in the 20th century to serve as president. To date, Kennedy has been the only Roman Catholic president and the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize, for his biography Profiles in Courage.
Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested that afternoon and determined to have fired shots that hit the President from a sixth floor window of the Texas School Book Depository. Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby mortally wounded Oswald two days later in a jail corridor. The FBI and the Warren Commission officially concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin, but its report was sharply criticized. The United States House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) agreed with the conclusion that Oswald fired the shots that killed the president, but also concluded that Kennedy was probably assassinated as the result of a conspiracy.
Kennedy ranks highly in historians' polls of U.S. presidents, and with the general public. His average approval rating of 70% is the highest of any president in Gallup's history of systematically measuring job approval. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 - January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after serving as the 37th Vice President of the United States under President John F. Kennedy, from 1961 to 1963. Johnson was a Democrat from Texas, who served as a United States Representative from 1937 to 1949 and as a United States Senator from 1949 to 1961. He spent six years as Senate Majority Leader, two as Senate Minority Leader, and two as Senate Majority Whip.
|Year Mint||Circulation Strikes|
|Lyndon B. Johnson|
|Reverse Designer||Michael Gaudioso|
Johnson ran for the Democratic nomination in the 1960 presidential election. Although unsuccessful, he was chosen by Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts to be his running mate. They went on to win a close election over Richard Nixon and Johnson was sworn in as Vice President on January 20, 1961. Two years and ten months later, on November 22, 1963, Johnson succeeded Kennedy as President following the latter's assassination. He ran for a full term in the 1964 election, winning by a landslide over Republican opponent Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater. He is one of four people who have served as President and Vice President, as well as in both houses of Congress.
Johnson designed the
Great Society legislation upholding civil rights, public broadcasting, Medicare, Medicaid, aid to
education, the arts, urban and rural development, public services, and his
War on Poverty. Assisted in part by a growing
economy, the War on Poverty helped millions of Americans rise above the poverty line during Johnson's presidency. Civil rights
bills signed by Johnson banned racial discrimination in public facilities, interstate commerce, the workplace, and housing;
and the Voting Rights Act banned certain requirements in southern states used to disenfranchise African Americans. With the
passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, the country's immigration system was reformed and all racial origin
quotas were removed (replaced by national origin quotas). Johnson was renowned for his domineering, sometimes abrasive,
personality and the "Johnson treatment" - his aggressive coercion of powerful politicians to advance legislation.
Historians argue that Johnson's presidency marked the peak of modern liberalism in the United States after the New Deal era. Johnson is ranked favorably by some historians because of his domestic policies and the passage of many major laws, affecting civil rights, gun control, wilderness preservation, and Social Security. (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)